In recent years, metal nanoparticles, such as silver and gold nanoparticles, are widely used for the delivery and targeting of pharmaceutical, therapeutic and diagnostic agents in cancer therapy. The role of these nanoparticles on specific sites is considered a crucial feature because of their ability to avoid interfering with healthy tissues and unnecessary side effects from drug therapy. Targeted drug delivery through nanoparticles helps to improve the concentration of drugs at the location of disease, thereby continuously reducing side effects, enhancing efficacy, or achieving some of both sometimes. Notably, the stability of peptide-NP conjugates in the interactions of nanoparticles with cells and their organelles has attracted attention presently. This study principally aims to comprehend the apoptotic approach of the peptide-conjugated nanoparticles in preventing cancer-cells growth.
1. Synthetic peptides (P1, P2, P3, P4, P5) were screened for cytotoxicity by MTT assay on NIH3T3 (Mouse embryo fibroblast) cells (normal) and HT-29 (Colon carcinoma) cells (cancerous) by MTT assay, and then particles were conjugated to the modified peptide P1 (Boc-L-DP-L-OMe) by standardized procedures. The resultant particle size and the polydispersity index (PDI) were obtained by dynamic light scattering (DLS) using the P1–silver NP and P1–gold NP conjugates.
2. Fluorescence imaging of dead and living cells was performed with propidium iodide and acridine orange, respectively. Also, the live cells were stained with DAPI and DNA fragmentation assay showed that the DNA was dissolved in 0.8% agarose gel.
1. By comparing the inhibition rates of the five peptides at the lowest concentration of 1µg / mL, it was concluded that the best results among peptides on cancer cells were noticed only in the case of peptide 1, so P1 was selected to conjugate with the nanoparticles for further assay.
2. The analysis confirmed the occurrence of conjugation by characterizing the conjugate of silver nanoparticles and peptides, which had been recognized in the previous works. Furthermore, the results of this paper showed that UV peak shift from AuNP at 556 nm to P1–AuNP at 442 nm was observed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, confirming the conjugation of peptide-NP. These conjugates were further used for assessing anticancer activity.
Aspergillus fischeri-mediated biosynthesized silver and gold nanoparticles are small in size and have a unique superior effect on colon cancer cells and breast cancer cells at an extremely low concentration of 1µg /mL, therefore, they have been focused on the possible use of anticancer therapy. Recently, targeted delivery has become one of the most challenging aspects of nano-biotechnology because it allows nanoparticles to accumulate more precisely in various tumors than in other normal tissues. Hence, the research thoroughly deals with systematically developed small molecules that will have important applications in the treatment of malignant tumors and eventually other diseases that are dependent on nanotechnology. Besides, the study confirmed that the augmented effect of peptide-AGNPs and peptide-AUNPs conjugates colon and breast cancer cells, and that inhibition of these conjugates resulted in DNA apoptosis or damage. Based on the confirmation, the designed synthesis of the peptide-nanoparticle conjugates help in the improved delivery of compounds and provide developed imaging and therapeutic options.
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