Cell-based therapy has expanded its influence in cancer immunotherapy, regenerative medicine,
and tissue engineering. Due to their secretory functions, differentiation capabilities, specific
homing effects through chemotaxis, distinctive therapeutic potentials, and ex vivo
expandability, cells have become an attractive reagent for advanced therapeutic strategies.
Therefore, the ability to modify cells and manipulate their functions according to intended
therapeutic designs has been the central scientific interest in the field of biomedical
research. Many innovative methods have been developed with genetic modification of cells being
the most advanced cell surface engineering technique. Although genetic modification is a
powerful tool, it has a limited applicability due to the permanent modifications made on cells.
Alternatively, many endeavors have been made to develop surface engineering techniques that can
circumvent the limitations of genetic modification. In this review, current methods of
non-genetic cell surface modification, including chemical conjugations, polymeric encapsulation,
hydrophobic insertion, enzymatic and metabolic addition, will be introduced. Moreover, cell
surface engineering plausible for cardiac remodeling and the future prospective will be
discussed at the end.