Electrostatic interaction utilizes the opposite charge interaction between the negatively charged cell membrane and the positively charged modifying materials. The negative charges of the cell outer surface result from the presence of sialic acid residues on glycoproteins or negatively charged proteins anchored to the cell membrane. By exploiting the charged nature of the cell membrane, various electrostatic methods have been developed to engineer the cell surface. As a professional cell surface engineering services provider, Creative Biolabs has accumulated rich precious experience in practice. With strong foundations, we are capable of offering reliable cell surface-based electrostatic interaction modification services.
The outer surface of the cell possesses significant native negative charges due to the presence of sialic acid residues on glycoproteins anchored to the cell membrane. This charge plays a crucial role in preventing cell aggregation. Over the two past decades, layer-by-layer assemblies of polyelectrolytes to form polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) films have been well optimized. PEM films are formed by the alternate assembly of polycations and polyanions and represent an innovative strategy for engineering the cell surfaces at the molecular level. Cationic polymers, such as chitosan, poly-(allylamine hydrochloride), poly-L-lysine (PLL), and poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI), strongly interact with the negatively charged mammalian cell surface and have been widely used for this approach.
Fig.1 Graphical illustration of coating of a pancreatic islet cell surface by layer-by-layer self-assembly of poly(ethyleneimine) films. (Abbina, 2018)
Some particularly promising, but challenging drug delivery cargos are nucleic acids such as DNA and various types of RNA including antisense RNA, siRNA, isRNA, and miRNA. Genetic material is relatively large compared to most therapeutics. This makes it more difficult to transport within the body, into a cell, within a cell, and into the nucleus. Electrostatic coatings are useful to modify the surfaces of particles and cell surface for gene delivery. In the case of particles, these coatings can improve multiple steps of delivery including improved serum resistance, cell targeting, cellular uptake, endosomal escape, controlled release, and reduced toxicity. In the case of the cell surface, these electrostatic modifications can enable spatial and temporal control of release.
Fig.2 SiRNA modified gold-nanoparticles (orange sphere) are electrostatically coated with cationic polymers (PBAEs) to enhance cell transfection. (Shmueli, 2010)
The availability of high-quality experimentally resolved HLA structures combined with advances in comparative structure modeling and in the application of electrostatics theory in the study of macromolecules provides a unique opportunity to increase our understanding of the relationship between structure and function in the context of HLA antigenicity and immunogenicity. Assessment of the surface electrostatic properties of HLA B-cell epitopes and computational analyses of HLA-alloantibody interactions represent a promising area for future research into the molecular basis of HLA immunogenicity and antigenicity.
As an industry-leading cell surface conjugation services provider, Creative Biolabs has thrown a lot of manpower, material, and financial resource into relevant research. Thus, we have accumulated extensive experience and accomplished hundreds of successful precedents. Our firm foundations and rich experience are strong guarantees of the quality of our services.
With mature technologies and an excellent expert team, Creative Biolabs aspires to bring every client satisfying services. If you are interested in cell surface-based electrostatic interaction modification services or other cell surface conjugation services, please feel free to contact us for more information.
All services are only provided for research purposes and Not for clinical use.